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Fast PCB Boards and Ceramic Resistor for Charge Controller

A very important aspect of any home renewable energy system is the charge controller. Charge controllers are connected into a wind turbine system between the source of power generation (such as a wind turbine or a solar panel) and the electricity storage system, usually a chemical battery such as lithium ion batteries. The charge controller monitors and controls voltage levels of the electricity flowing to the battery to ensure the battery is not overloaded. In the event that excess electricity is generated, the charge is dissipated through a dump component such as a heating element or an electrical resistor. All in all this device ensures that the electricity generated is managed effectively, efficiently and safely and prevents your wind turbines from damaging your battery storage systems.

Types of Charge Controllers

There are a few different types of charge controllers commonly used in domestic settings, each have their own benefits and drawbacks:

Shunt Controller: This is the most basic type of controller. The controller is switched on when batteries can be charged and switched off when the batteries are full. The simplicity of this device makes it the cheapest option but at the cost of the system being very inefficient.

Series Regulator: These devices are similar in concept to the Shunt Controllers. Series Regulator controllers divert power through different pathways to achieve different electrical results depending on the state of the batteries. This is most commonly used in large solar arrays as it is a cheap method of controlling battery voltage with better efficiency than Shunt Controllers.

Pulse Width Modulation: Pulse Width Modulation charge controllers constantly monitor the power levels of the batteries in the system and allow the required charge through, with different modes depending on how full the batteries are. These systems are generally quite efficient and relatively cheap so are a popular option for homeowners installing a small solar array on their property.

Maximum Power Point Tracking: This charge controller type manages the voltage and the current of the electrical flow to ensure the power generation and storage is optimised. By optimising the power, this charge controller can potentially significantly increase solar panel productivity. As with the other above types, this kind of charge controller is best suited to solar panels due to their smooth voltage DC power production.

Diversion Load: This type of charge controller diverts excess power into an electrical dissipating component such as a resistor to prevent the power from overcharging and damaging the batteries. This type of charge controller is popular in wind turbine charge controllers due to the suprratic nature of the voltage generated by wind turbines as a result of inconsistent wind speeds. For this reason, TESUP chooses to use a Diversion Load system to produce its charge controllers.

Solar and wind Charge Controllers